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AFOSR: BASIC RESEARCH INITIATIVES

Posted 2/13/2013 Printable Fact Sheet

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Basic Research Initiatives

This section outlines cross-cutting multi-disciplinary topics that support AFOSR's Basic Research Initiatives (BRI's). These BRI's are new research opportunities of interest to AFOSR. Proposers are highly encouraged to confer with the appropriate AFOSR Program Officer(s). White papers briefly summarizing your ideas and why they are different from what others are doing are highly encouraged, but not required.


2D Materials and Devices beyond Graphene

Background: Following the isolation of Graphene, a treasure trove of 2D layers have been successfully prepared, whose properties range from insulating (2D BN) to semiconducting (2D MoS2), with direct or indirect band-gap depending on the exact number of atomic layers. These new 2D materials not only complement Graphene, which is basically a conductor, but also, being 2D in nature without dangling bonds, minimally strain or otherwise perturb each other. Following the successful exploitation of thin- film hetero-structures over the past four decades, hetero-structures made of different 2D materials may enable a wide range of unique devices with unprecedented performance characteristics for electronic, photonic, sensing, structural, thermal and energy applications. For example, high-speed transistors that consume little power, optical detectors of extremely low noise, and structural layers with extremely high thermoelectric coefficients may be fabricated on flexible substrates. Multi-function devices for spintronics and quantum computing are also envisioned. However, although limited success for growing 2D BN on Graphene has been demonstrated, the weak van der Waals interaction between 2D layers makes it very challenging to grow one 2D material on top of another. It will take many years to develop growth techniques, whether van der Waals epitaxy or other techniques, for large-area 2D hetero-structures typically required for device fabrication on the commercial scale. In addition, there is little knowledge about properties derived from predictive modeling capabilities of 2D hetero-structures. Many of these challenges were discussed in a recent NSF/AFOSR workshop of the same name as this initiative (http://nsf2dworkshop.rice.edu/).

Objective(s): Grow, characterize and understand hetero-structures of different 2D materials with unique electronic, photonic, thermal and structural characteristics. Design, fabricate and explore devices based on such 2D hetero-structures.

Research Concentration Area(s):

  • Innovative growth techniques for uniform and reproducible assembly of 2D hetero-structures with precise control of purity and stoichiometry
  • Advanced characterization techniques and structure-property correlation for 2D materials and interfaces
  • Theoretical tools for predictive modeling/simulation of properties of 2D materials and their interactions with the environment and other 2D materials including edge and interface effects
  • Demonstration of 2D hetero-structure devices with unique performance characteristics

Resources: Under this initiative, several large teams and several small teams are anticipated to be funded for 3-5 years. Large teams may include 4-7 faculty members or equivalents for comprehensive investigation of material growth, characterization, modeling, and device demonstration with a budget on the order of $1 million per year. Small teams may include 1-3 faculty members or equivalents with a narrow focus such as hetero-structure growth, transport study, contact formation, or edge/interface effect with a budget of approximately $300,000 per year. For both large and small teams, international collaboration is encouraged, but not required. Before submitting a full proposal, potential proposer is highly recommended to email a White paper to one of the research topic chiefs listed below. The White paper should not exceed three pages. Additional sections on curriculum vitae, current and pending supports, facilities and equipment, and estimated budgets can be attached to the White paper and will not be counted against the page limit. AFOSR and NSF are collaborating on this initiative. Additional funding and requirements may be announced by NSF later.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. James Hwang, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-7339; DSN 426-7339

Dr. Gernot Pomrenke, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-8426, DSN 426-8426

Dr. Joycelyn Harrison, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-6225, DSN 426-6225

Dr. Misoon Mah, AFOSR/IO
+81-3-5410-4409, DSN 315-229-3282
 

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Bio-Sensing of Magnetic Fields

Background: A natural magnetoreceptor must be sensitive to the Earth's very low magnetic field strength. Despite compelling evidence that many animal species, from insect to migratory birds, show behavioral sensitivity to Earth-strength magnetic fields, a conclusive description of the underlying receptor mechanism is still missing. Since classical chemical reactions are unaffected at this level, a quantum-level process may be required. A current idea, known as the "radical pair hypothesis," proposes that electron transfer reactions in certain photolyase-derived retinal proteins, cryptochromes, form radical pairs with correlated spin dynamics susceptible to low-strength magnetic fields, hence acting as a non-linear biochemical interferometer. Exactly how this highly transient quantum-level effect could be sustained and converted to a neural signal has not yet been elucidated. A second proposed mechanism is based on biogenic magnetite, which has been isolated from a variety of animals in two forms, single-domain crystals with a fixed magnetic axis, and superparamagnetic crystals, which track the direction of a weak external field. While the radical-pair mechanism is tied to photoreception, and requires a certain level of luminance, the magnetite-based would operate in complete darkness.

Objective(s): This BRI initiates a basic research program to understand biological magnetic field sensation. These research projects will (a) address the bio-sensory basis for long-range navigation by orientation to the geo-magnetic field, (b) elucidate possible quantum-level physical mechanisms for magnetic field sensation tied, e.g., to cryptochromes, and (c) provide a scientific foundation for the effects of static and pulsed magnetic fields on the cellular and molecular level of neural processing.

Research Concentration Area(s):
(1) Long-range navigation: Understanding the key factors underlying the geo-magnetic field compass, especially its bio-sensory basis using novel, robust, and reproducible experimental approaches. Possible research includes, but is not limited to behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on genetically modified organisms.
(2) Spin chemical receptor mechanism: Determining the functional role of molecules of the cryptochrome family for the transduction process of magnetic field sensing. Explore possible contributing quantum-level physical mechanisms, and the signaling pathway.
(3) Magnetic effects on neural processing: Establishing the scientific foundation for current AFRL explorations of effects of strong magnetic fields on neural processing. Understanding the cellular and molecular neuronal processes following exposure to static and pulsed magnetic fields

Resources: This BRI particularly invites multi-disciplinary teams. The submission of concise (3 page) White papers prior to developing full proposals is highly recommended. White papers should briefly describe the current state of related research, the potential of the proposed effort to advance it, and include a yearly budget estimate for a three to five year effort.

Research Topic Chiefs:
Dr. James Hwang, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-7339; DSN 426-7339

Dr. Gernot Pomrenke, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-8426, DSN 426-8426

Dr. Joycelyn Harrison, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-6225, DSN 426-6225

Dr. Misoon Mah, AFOSR/IO
+81-3-5410-4409, DSN 315-229-3282

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Development and Verification of Effective First Principles Modeling (Maxwell-Bloch Semiconductor Equations) of Semiconductor Lasers under Non-equilibrium Operating Conditions

Background: The current state-of-the-art in modeling and consequently understanding the physics of semiconductor active structures derives from ad-hoc parameterized models that rely on experimental input to fit multiple parameters and completely lacks any predictive capability so that any device realization requires a long and expensive trial-and-error scheme. Part of this failure can be ascribed to an insufficient understanding of the fundamental principles governing the semiconductor gain medium operating under extreme non-equilibrium conditions. Effective Maxwell-Bloch Semiconductor equations are the essential basic science in describing many-body and plasma-dynamic effects in highly excited semiconductors, such as the operating electron-hole plasma in semiconductor lasers.

Objective(s): The objective of this BRI is to support theory and measurements that are highly sensitive to detailed gain and index dynamics and should therefore provide verification or otherwise of the effective Maxwell-Bloch Semiconductor (M-BS) Equations as representations of the dynamic gain and index dependence on carrier density and photon energy. It is the case that ultrafast many-body interactions on femtosecond timescales between electrons, holes, and phonons dictate the performance of ultra-short semiconductor laser pulses. Indeed the ultra-short pulses generated in semiconductor active media exhibit very strong pulse distortions which can likely be ascribed to strong nonlinear interactions due to those highly non-equilibrium carrier distributions resulting from ultrafast carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering in both semiconductor gain and saturable absorber elements in the cavity. Also the Continuous Wave operation of semiconductor lasers, especially at high electrical/optical pumping, can likely be ascribed to strong nonlinear interactions due to highly non-equilibrium injection. While the many-body equation hierarchy is now well established, modelers have relied thus far on some quasi-equilibrium approximations where the nonlinear optical response is linearized about some reference carrier density or temperature. The latter approximation suffices to address a broad range of problems relating to the design of semiconductor laser structures but fails under conditions where the physical system is subjected to extreme conditions such as very high pump levels (strong departure from Fermi-Dirac distributions). Understanding the physics of these extreme conditions is a compelling and exciting scientific goal. In addition, because the M-BS equations make predictions that haven't been measured yet, some key ideas in many-body problems may be disproven.

Research Concentration Area(s): Many-body microscopic interactions of electron and whole plasmas and their coupling to lattice phonons (especially under strong non-equilibrium conditions such as substantial departure from Fermi-Dirac distributions). Inclusion of large separations of physical time scales requiring the development of sophisticated mathematical approaches. Confirmation of theoretical predictions in dynamic-state and pulsed-laser systems in laboratory settings leading toward a comprehensive understanding and a new mathematical foundation for semiconductor laser physics

By fully implementing a first-principles approach it will not only become possible to fast-track novel devices but also to establish semiconductor laser analysis and modeling as a new scientific discipline with truly predictive capabilities.

Resources: Approximately $1.1M is available annually to support 3 year efforts awarded through this topic. Efforts from collaborative, multi-investigator teams are highly encouraged. Prior to submitting a basic research proposal, interested parties should contact the AFOSR Program Officers below to discuss the proposed research project. The awards are expected to have a start date of 1 August 2013 with the 1st period being 14 months and the next 2 periods running 12 months each so formal proposal should be submitted in Spring 2013.

Research Topic Chiefs:
Dr. Arje Nachman, AFOSR/RTB
703-696-8427; DSN 426-8427

Dr. John Gonglewski, AFOSR/EOARD
+44-(0)1895-616007, DSN 314-235-6007

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Laser-matter Interactions in the Relativistic Optics Regime

Background: Since the first demonstration of the laser in 1960, there has been a remarkable increase in the peak power available from pulsed lasers. Techniques for the generation and amplification of laser pulses, such as Q-switching (1962), mode-locking (1964) and chirped pulse amplification (CPA) (1985), have enabled laser peak powers to increase by 12 orders of magnitude from the kilowatt level, available from the first pulsed ruby lasers, to the Petawatt (PW = 10^15 W), first demonstrated in the late 1990s at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

The ability to achieve record ultrahigh peak powers has provided scientists research opportunities to explore the fundamental interactions of extreme light fields with matter. Laser produced plasmas easily generate secondary forms of radiation such as coherent extreme ultraviolet, x-rays and protons. In the relativistic optics regime, the ionized electrons quiver with relativistic speeds, giving rise to effects such as laser wakefield acceleration where electrons are accelerated to gigaelectronvolt (GeV) energies over centimeters distances; a 10,000x length reduction relative to conventional accelerators. At even higher intensities, not previously available, protons can also respond relativistically possibly resulting in radiation sources with novel and extreme characteristics. It is theorized that at the very highest intensities, we can approach and see evidence of nonlinear quantum electrodynamics (QED) interactions (e.g. Schwinger electron-positron pair production from vacuum is expected to be observable at intensities I~10^27 W/cm^2).

In contrast to the LLNL Petawatt, which was a large scale laser user facility, table-top CPA laser science and technology has advanced at a similar pace resulting in laser systems with significantly shorter pulse durations, high repetition rates and much increased focused laser intensity. The last two decades alone has experienced a remarkable six order of magnitude increase in the achieved focused intensity of table-top CPA lasers to a record intensity of 2x10^22 W/cm^2. Table-top lasers at a myriad of academic and national labs worldwide routinely generate peak powers well above 10 terawatts (TW) and, in some cases, above 100 TW. In what is becoming a potential paradigm shift, petawatt-scale science is moving from a few large scale (i.e. building sized) national facilities operating at very low repetition rates (i.e. few laser shots per day) to compact (i.e. few table-tops) university-scale laboratories operating a much high rep rates (i.e. a laser shot every few seconds). In addition, CPA technology to go well beyond 1 PW and to increase the average power of PW-class lasers exists and is maturing rapidly; evidenced by several projects to build 10 PW-class lasers (e.g. Extreme Light Infrastructure).

Objective(s): The extraordinary increase in achieved focused laser intensity provides access to a wide range of underlying physical regimes that span from nonlinear optics to relativistic plasma physics and approach nonlinear QED interactions. The recent proliferation of Petawatt-class lasers at university scale laboratories opens up a number of exciting and unprecedented research opportunities for the investigation and application of laser-matter interactions at the highest intensity level. The objective of this initiative is to explore and understand the rich variety of physical processes and potential new physics involved in the interactions of extreme light fields with matter in the relativistic optics regime.

Research Concentration Area(s): This initiative seeks to address research areas which include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Fundamental studies of atomic/molecular physics in the strongest fields ever created (i.e. >10^22 W/cm^2).
  • Novel concepts for laser acceleration of ions (e.g. protons and heavy ions) to include, but not be limited to, new acceleration mechanisms, novel microstructured targets and optimal regimes of operation exhibiting high flux and narrow energy spread.
  • Novel approaches for laser-driven electron acceleration to include, but not be limited to, pathways towards 10 GeV energy electrons, increased electron bunch charge with monochromatic energy spread and vacuum-based (vs. plasma-based) acceleration concepts.
  • Laser-based, high-energy particle, X-ray and γ-ray sources exhibiting high flux and narrow energy spread.
  • Exploration of nonlinear QED physics with high intensity lasers (e.g. electron-positron pair production from vacuum).

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $2M/yr in the research supported by this initiative. It is highly encouraged that submitted proposals include strong experimental, theoretical and modeling components as well as international collaborations aimed at fostering joint research and the exchange of researchers. Proposals submitted under this initiative should support teams of typically 2-4 investigators with awards ranging from $500k-650k/yr for 3 years. Interested parties are encouraged to submit a White paper on their proposed effort no later than April 12, 2013. Full proposals are due by May 31, 2013.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Riq Parra, AFOSR/RTB
703-696-8571, DSN 426-8571

Dr. John W. Luginsland, AFOSR/RTB
703-588-1775, DSN 425-1775

Dr. John Gonglewski, AFOSR/EOARD
+44-0-1895-616007, DSN 314-235-6007

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Lasers Physics for Scaling of Single Fibers to High Beam Quality and High-Power

Background: Fiber lasers today are regarded as the preeminent laser, having qualities which will enable scaling to high power levels with good beam quality. A recent proposal submitted to the EU science Department proposed replacing the CERN collider for elementary particle high energy research with a fiber laser system composed of the combination of several million individual fiber units that are brought to a focus. In addition, current thinking within the DoD and Europe is that the high brightness required for military applications will only come from advances in fiber lasers.

Radiation within a fiber is amplified and guided by the core of the fiber. Because of its long propagation length, high optical-to-optical conversion efficiencies are possible. Fundamental mode operation and therefore good beam quality is readily achievable in small core diameter fiber. In addition, due to a high surface to volume ratio, the heating effects typically found in solid state lasers are generally less severe.

Even with the progress that has been made in the development of high power continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fiber lasers, numerous challenges still exist. For both narrow and broad line-width optical fiber lasers, the onset of nonlinear and other effects tends to limit the achievable output power. Also, for pulsed lasers, material breakdown is an issue. For larger mode area fibers, beam quality can be an issue since such fibers are multi-mode. Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of specialty fibers to simultaneously enable high power with good beam quality, for example, large mode area photonic bandgap and large pitch photonic crystal fiber configurations. Another challenge is to expand the range of wavelengths where fiber lasers are currently available and to develop lasers that can be tuned over broad wavelength ranges. As an example, fiber lasers, other than hollow gas-filled lasers which lase on discrete wavelengths, are currently not available at wavelengths longer than 2.8 microns. Much work is needed to develop materials to enable lasing at new wavelengths. Once such materials exist, more work is necessary to develop the technology to fabricate optical fibers from such material.

In addition to the challenges listed above, there is an extensive field of application for compact devices containing fiber lasers operating from the visible to the far infrared due to easy doping of the fiber core with the active ions. Such fiber lasers have found applications in medicine for cutting and ablation; in the automotive industry for cutting and drilling applications; in bio-sciences; in laser gyroscopes for navigation; in sensors for national security; as well as the fields of communications, quantum information devices and plasmonic structures. For defense applications, the main direction of research has been toward the development of lasers for weapons applications, communications and encryption, as well as surveillance. Finally, if fiber lasers could be developed at new, interesting, wavelengths, even more applications will become possible.

Objective(s): This program would address the fundamental science behind the development and the scaling of individual CW and pulsed optical fibers operating between 1 and 8 microns to high power while maintaining fundamental mode operation and good beam quality. Such research would increase the fundamental knowledge of fiber lasers through the investigation of: 1. factors that are limiting or enhancing to power scaling; 2. novel fiber power scaling schemes; 3. novel optical fiber designs and their fabrication; 4. the development of optical materials that lase at new wavelengths and their fabrication into optical fibers; 5. new, untried, schemes to enable more efficient lasing or lasing at new wavelengths; as well as 6. new, untried, coherent combination schemes. The focus, which is two-fold, will be on new ideas and concepts that have the potential to be game changing when applied to current research problems or on new ideas and concepts, divergent from the current direction of research, having the potential to open up new areas to be explored. Research Concentration Area(s): The proposed BRI seeks to address the following research challenges and goals for the third decade of high-power fiber laser science:

  • Development of new theories to explain the dynamics associated with scaling CW and pulsed optical fibers to high power. This may include the development of a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms behind the factors limiting or enabling the scaling of a fiber up in power. It also may include investigation of both the linear and nonlinear properties of new fiber materials which are critical for power scaling and transmission. Experimental validation of any new theories may also be included.
  • Development of new schemes for scaling of CW and pulsed fiber lasers to high power. Such schemes may involve novel: materials, pumping techniques, lasing mechanisms, pump wavelengths, fiber designs, temporal formats for pulsed lasers, mechanisms for waveguiding, etc. This may also include the investigation of architectures that further optimize thermal management such as large surface to volume ratio structures and structures having a non-concentrated gain region.
  • Development of new optical fiber designs and their fabrication. This may include the development of novel waveguiding schemes, the utilization of new materials (possibly Metamaterials), the usage of a mixture of laser gain and loss materials to maintain single fundamental mode operation and the development of novel fabrication methods. It may also include the usage of directly coupled waveguides for coherent propagation and the utilization of materials of uniform structure having minimal stresses at the interfaces (core/cladding). Along with this, technology needs to be developed to enable fabrication of these structures.
  • Development of new materials to enable lasing at new wavelengths and the improvement of existing materials as well as their fabrication into optical fibers. This may include the development of a full understanding of the level structure, oscillation wavelength, radiative decay times, atomic associations and clustering mechanisms, etc. for each type of active ion center. A full understanding of the various lasing mechanisms of the material should be obtained as well as the best way to prepare and optimize excitation of the material to enable efficient lasing. Also, materials having a high thermal conductivity to minimize thermal effects and materials having a high gain and/or small SBS/SRS gain coefficients to minimize nonlinear effects are of interest. In addition, this may include the development of the technology to enable fabrication of the material into an optical fiber which will guide light.
  • Development of new, untried schemes (other than new materials) to obtain lasing at hard to reach wavelengths. This may include novel Raman laser systems, novel pumping schemes, the use of nonlinear optics to obtain other wavelengths, etc.
  • Investigation of forward-leaning, untried novel coherent or spectral beam combining schemes to enable placement of near diffraction-limited power on a target down range. Such beam combining techniques may be hybrid, i.e., coherent/spectral and or passive/active. Development of techniques for combining the output of pulsed fiber lasers.
  • Investigation of additional ideas, not mentioned, that will advance the science of fiber lasers.

Many problems associated with the scaling of individual CW and pulsed fiber lasers up in power are unsolved. Also, fibers lasers at this point in time do not exist at many wavelengths which may have interesting applications. The goal of this BRI is to significantly advance the science associated with the current direction of fiber laser research as well as to open up new, exciting, promising, fiber laser research areas through new ideas and directions. The goal is to bring about a significant advancement in the state-of-the-art which may open up new applications for fiber lasers.

Resources: Approximately $1.8 M is available annually to support 3 year efforts awarded through this topic. Efforts from collaborative, multi-investigator teams are highly encouraged. It is highly encouraged that any submitted proposals include strong experimental, theoretical and modeling components as well as international collaborations aimed at fostering joint research and the exchange of researchers. Fiber lasers are a research area listed in the BAA of the EU Framework Process and are thus a major interest of the European Research Council (ERC). In addition, European countries are leaders in the world in high-power fiber lasers. Therefore, international components and collaborations will be seriously considered and may be an integral part of any successful proposal. Prior to submitting a basic research proposal, interested parties should contact the AFOSR Program Officers below to discuss the proposed research project. The awards are expected to have a start date of 1 August 2013 with the 1st period being 14 months and the next 2 periods running 12 months each. Formal proposals should be submitted by the spring of 2013

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Howard Schlossberg, AFOSR/RTB
703-696-7549, DSN 426-7549

Dr. John Gonglewski, AFOSR/EOARD
+44-0-1895-616007, DSN 314-235-6007

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Metal Dielectric Interface: Charge Transfer in Heterogeneous Media under Extreme Environments

Background: High density capacitors and ferroelectric, oxide, and ceramic dielectric devices, both linear and non-linear, are a mainstay of electronic integrated circuits and energy storage devices for high technology products of the U.S. Air Force and DoD, where they perform essential functions such as storing electrical charge/energy, and blocking direct current while allowing alternating currents to propagate. Effective high dielectric permittivity is most effectively achieved by using metal-dielectric and semiconductor-dielectric capacitor structures. These interfaces are ubiquitous in electronics, particularly where triple points---metal plus two different dielectrics (generalized to include vacuum or air) with vastly different permittivity's are a source of failure under high external fields. This remains an important area where the fundamental description of the physics is an unsolved scientific challenge. The need to study fatigue and failure (dielectric breakdown at hetero-interface) stems from the high potential technological relevance of high energy density capacitors, and from the very controversial discussion of the underlying mechanisms during the last twenty years. The picture becomes more complicated when we include new time-scales to the variety of spatial scales already introduced by the hetero-structure. It is well known that as the power of the discharge increases, the achievable energy density exponentially decreases. The reason of this is also not definitively known, but clearly depends on the non-equilibrium transport of energy and charge through the structure and through these dielectric-metal interfaces.

Objective(s): This BRI aims to expand the scientific understanding of this problem through the incorporation of the new mathematical enterprises that are becoming a cornerstone of materials science and engineering. This allows the potential for capturing the dynamic relationship between structure and properties across the space and time scales that exist at the hetero-interface. The ultimate aim of this focused topic is to provide fully self-consistent and time-dependent solutions for the electron density functions (i.e., the coupled Schrödinger--Poisson equations) that can predict failure due to large dielectric-constant mismatches between heterogeneous structures, including predictive capability to understand the role of high-power operation. In particular, a unified approach is sought to understand the diverse phenomena observed at metal-dielectric and semiconductor-dielectric interfaces. The BRI requires incorporation of experimental characterization methods in creating efficient representations of hetero-interfaces, which can be used in conjunction with new overarching multiscale modeling framework for predictive material systems and development. Designing new materials with properties specifically tailored to withstand extreme environments (high power, repetitive operation, external temperatures, external electric fields, and internal strain fields of dissimilar materials and other combined loads) require fundamentally understanding thermomechanical extremes and their role on the electromagnetic performance of the material. Similar understanding of the fundamental transport of both charge and energy is required to provide a self-consistent understanding of these materials. Once these processes are understood, it will be possible to predict responses of capacitors and other dielectric devices under extreme environments using computational tools and couple this knowledge to experimental diagnostics that can rapidly confirm theoretical predictions. This will enable the high dielectric tunabilities that are most effectively achieved by using metal-dielectric and semiconductor-dielectric capacitor structures while providing the robust lifetime and resilience to extreme environments needed for DOD applications.

Research Concentration Area(s):

  • In the heterostructure between metal and dielectric interfaces, the lattice structure, stoichiometry, interface electronic structure (bonding, interface states, etc.), and symmetry all conspire to produce behavior different from the bulk constituents, including 'dead layer effect' beneath the interface. It is not exactly clear whether the fatigue (the loss of switchable polarization) or catastrophic failure is related to the lower amount of electronic charge carriers, or actually the reduced number of vacancies. Similarly a lack of understanding clouds the role of charge and energy transport as the power level of the device is increased. As fatigue, to a fairly high degree, is a non-equilibrium process, the differentiation between the ranges of only charge state changes or increased number of ionic defects is not clear. Many aspects of failure phenomenon at the hetero interfaces, both metal-dielectric and semiconductor-dielectric, have been only vaguely explicable by currently accepted mechanisms. (i) A scientific understanding that can produce quantitative descriptors is required to characterize the metal-dielectric and semiconductor-dielectric interfaces under extreme environment. Efforts will be supported in applied mathematics to model the link between microscopic (atomistic) and mesoscopic (microstructural) scales to elucidate energy storage and transfer mechanisms and enabling accurate prediction of the electro mechanical behavior. (ii) The research should explore mechanisms of constituent atom diffusion and metal ion drift in dielectrics to provide the conceptual framework of electrochemical physics through consideration of activity of the constituents under extreme environments of combined external fields (i.e., chemical and electrical). The definition of extreme environments should also encompass the non-linear dissipation of dielectric materials at low and high temperatures. (iii) Fundamental studies are required to develop the generalized knowledge for the strain-gradients that automatically arise in materials even in absence of external strain inducers, and the impact on the electronic states due to these factors.
  • Tools and diagnostic techniques from the hardware community for design and characterization of energy localization (ionic or electronic) and electronic excited states (non-equilibrium) will be supported. The BRI solicits projects that include the combined diagnostic techniques and experimental characterization methods in creating efficient representations of hetero-interfaces, which can be used in a new overarching multiscale modeling framework for predictive material systems and development. The vital relevance of assigning the most fatal fatigue mechanism to all its microscopic sources remains a frontier to be conquered and projects that can bridge theoretical and experimental efforts while comparing well to diagnostic results will be funded.
  • This BRI stresses a fundamental understanding of charge and energy through dielectric and metal interfaces at a variety of time scales and in a variety of conditions. It is not clear the complicated role between quantum mechanical effects and more traditional bulk transport concepts, especially when one considers the tunneling of charge through the potential barriers at hetero-interfaces. The rapidly emerging fields of quantum information and high-frequency solid-state communication technologies require a similar understanding of defects and traps in insulators and at the metal/insulator interface, and the impact of these features on charge and energy transport. Intriguingly, the further development of some quantum computing and quantum communication systems depends on reducing loss mechanisms to extremely low levels to prevent decoherence, which destroys quantum mechanical entanglement and causes loss of signal. Given the broad questions of understanding transport in complicated, real world microstructures, this effort also seeks to create insights with the design and diagnostics of the quantum states in solid-state materials with coherency, and control of the loss of energy, charge and information. This provides a potential link between the electrical engineering and material science of capacitors with the condensed matter physics of solid-state material transport in complex microstructures. This could provide next generation scientific tools to the material scientist working in the areas of quantum computing and quantum communication.

Resources: Interested parties are encouraged to submit a White paper on their proposed effort no later than April 12, 2013. Full proposals are due by May 31, 2013. White papers should briefly describe the proposed effort and describe how it will advance the current state-of-the-art; an approximate yearly cost for a three to five year effort should also be included. Researchers with White papers of significant interest will be invited to submit full proposals. Multidisciplinary team proposals also are preferred over single investigator efforts; however, smaller, single investigator proposals will be considered on a case by case basis. Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $2M per year in the research supported by this initiative.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Ali Sayir, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-7236, DSN 426-7236

Dr. John W. Luginsland, AFOSR/RTB
703-588-1775, DSN 425-1775

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Nanoscale Building Blocks for Novel Materials

Background: For a century, the atom has been the building block of chemistry and the chemical bond between atoms remains the most fundamental and important concept in chemistry. It is now becoming possible that novel structures on the nanometer scale can be used as a new generation of building blocks to assemble materials with new sets of properties. Nanostructures such as nanocrystals, quantum dots, or other nanoscale cluster can act as "designer atoms" that can be bound together in arrays or networks by novel linkers that control the distance and interactions between the components. This program will seek to design and probe assemblies of these designer atoms and designer bonds to create materials with novel electronic, chemical and structural properties for U.S. Air Force applications.

There are four major elements of the proposed program: the building blocks, the linkers, methods of self-assembly, and resulting properties of the new materials. A wide range of nanostructures from metal nanocrystals to active semiconductor quantum dots can have a wide range of functions that could produce new properties for energy flow and charge transport when coupled in a network. Varying the size and strength of the coupling interaction between components and the composition of the linkers adds additional important dimensions to the types of materials that could be developed. For example, linkers ranging from chalcogenides to strands of DNA and proteins have recently been used as novel linkers between nanostructures that can be easily tailored. Novel methods of self-assembly will be explored to produce 2-D and 3-D networks of materials and extend some chemical concepts from the nanoscale to the mesoscale. The ability to tailor the size, structure, and morphology of building blocks and the strength of the coupling between these components provides a rich palette from which many intriguing new materials can be designed. Using these new building blocks to create mimics of other elements could prove to be an important way to eliminate the use of expensive elements in catalysts and other structures and devices, as well as producing replacements for critical materials used in electronic, energy, magnetic, and optical applications whose supplies might be vulnerable. Novel ways to control energy transport and charge flow in materials will also be explored.

Objective(s): In this initiative, we seek to develop a new paradigm for materials and molecular science in which new nanoscale building blocks and tailored bonds or linkers are utilized to create new materials. This program will explore new ground in a diverse class of new materials and new concepts of bonding that will enable mesoscale self-assembled synthesis of chemical systems rather than just chemical compounds. Novel electronic properties may emerge as coherent and correlated processes are established in this connected network of particles. Unique properties may emerge with applications in energy and charge transport, catalysis, functional materials, and electronic materials. The ability to mimic the properties of certain elements with assemblies or structures of other atoms will also be targeted in this program, as well as novel 3-D nanostructured materials.

Research Concentration Area(s): Research on creating new materials from nanoscale building blocks impacts several concentration areas: nanoscale synthesis; spectroscopic probing of new mesoscale structures and binding forces; and theory of how these structures interact and how new properties emerge. These components are tightly intertwined, as theory might predict new ways that nanostructures can be coupled that will have to be realized by synthesis and probed by spectroscopy. Advances are needed in ways to control nanoparticle assembly, binding, and linking with unique strategies that can vary degrees of electronic coupling and correlation between particles. Spectroscopic methods that probe properties and structures of nanoparticle networks will need to be demonstrated and utilized. Finally, theory will be utilized to understand the types of forces that are controlling the assembly and interactions between particles, and how resulting emergent properties are developing. As new properties are discovered, new concentrations will surely present themselves as additional application of this new paradigm emerge.

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $1M peryear in the research supported by this initiative. Proposals submitted under this initiative should support small teams of typically 2-4 investigators with awards of about $500K peryear for 3 years. Please note that this initiative emphasizes research that bridges the boundaries across multiple AFOSR portfolios. The submission of a White paper to one of the Program Officers for this initiative is strongly encouraged prior to the submission of a full proposal. Full proposals are encouraged by 30 June 2013.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Michael R. Berman, AFOSR/RTE
703-696-7781, DSN 426-1234

Dr. Hugh DeLong, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-7722, DSN 426-7722

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Perceptual and Social Cues in Human-like Robotic Interactions

Background: Future U.S. Air Force operations will heavily rely on autonomous systems. One important class of such systems includes those with physical effectors and mobility that in some ways emulate human abilities, i.e. robots. In order to optimize performance and minimize errors in the eventual use of robots in U.S. Air Force applications, research is needed to better understand the dynamics of human interaction with these devices. Yet, little is known about the how social design elements influence trust and performance within the overall human-machine system. These social design elements may be considered surface cues that users evaluate when making decisions to trust these technologies. Fundamental questions in this area remain unanswered, for instance: what impact does a humanoid design have on trust and human-machine performance?, what humanoid features (appearance, voice, personality) are the most influential to user trust of the system?, do non-physical social elements (i.e., voice, personality) have the same impact on user trust and system performance as physical appearance elements? This is a research area that is particularly ripe for international collaboration as the focus of the US robotics community has been on cognitive performance to emulate human characteristics while the foreign (particularly Asian) robotics community has concentrated on appearance and physical performance. An important goal of this work is to attempt to find the ideal blend of artificial intelligence (as perceived by the human) and mechatronics to achieve the most effective human-robotic partnerships.

Objective(s): This BRI is intended to initiate a basic research program that analyzes and develops the perceptual and social cues that drive trust perceptions and performance within human-robot interactions.

Research Concentration Area(s): Suggested research areas include the following: (1) Empirical (laboratory and field) studies to examine impact of socially-designed cues such as humanoid appearance, voice, personality, and other social elements on human trust and overall system performance, (2) comparative studies that compare the impact of physical "embodiment" features versus non-physical features to empirically determine which features have the most influence on human trust and overall system performance, (3) research on how to characterize application domains in terms of the importance of human characteristics in achieving success in those domains, (4) research on dynamic modeling of the human-robotic partnership to allow continuous improvement of joint performance in real-world applications.

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $2M peryear in the research supported by this initiative. Proposals submitted under this initiative should support projects ranging from 300-500K peryear for 3 years. The submission of a White paper to one of the Program Officers for this initiative is strongly encouraged prior to the submission of a full proposal. Full proposals are encouraged by 30 June 2012. Interdisciplinary and international collaborations are particularly welcome for this topic.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Joseph Lyons, AFOSR/RTC
703-696-6207, DSN 426-6207

Dr. Peter Friedland, AOARD
DSN 229-3475

Dr. Jay Myung, AFOSR/RTC
703-696-8478, DSN 426-8478

Dr. James Lawton, AFOSR/EOARD
DSN 235-6187

Dr. Hiroshi Motoda, AFOSR/AOARD
DSN 229-3475

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Plasma - Surface Interactions in Reactive Environments

Background: Plasmas can create unique reactive environments that are of particular interest to the U.S. Air Force. The reactive behavior can depend on the composition of the plasma, electron energies, and surfaces with which the plasma interacts. Plasma-surface interactions are becoming increasingly important in applications such as understanding electrode erosion, hybrid plasma-catalyst systems, and the emerging area of micro plasmas, in which there is a higher percentage of surface area relative to the plasma volume than in more conventional plasmas. This effort seeks to develop the fundamental understanding of plasma-surface interactions that would enhance our ability to model these plasma systems, to control the reaction chemistry, and to guide the development of new materials and systems. This approach should focus and optimize performance of systems from low-power, low-temperature plasma discharges, while providing scientific insights on surface/plasma interaction that also pertain to high energy density situations such as high-power microwave devices and plasma-based thruster technology, such as Hall thrusters.

Plasma-surface interactions can affect reactivity in numerous ways including transient surface process (hot electron chemistry) or adsorbate reactions (electron and ion surface reactions). Surfaces may serve to sculpt non-Maxwellian, long tail electron energy distributions or promote the formation of radicals or negative ions, with dramatic effects on gas phase electron, ion or radical- molecule chemistry for another avenue of control. Plasmas can also be used to control how dynamical processes depend on length and time scales such that the interplay between transport and chemistry can be coordinated to increase the activity of a catalytic process, direct reactions toward a desired product, or enhance the durability of an active catalyst susceptible to poisoning by reacting away deposited products. The addition of electrons from plasmas (or other means) into catalysts can affect the physical and electronic structure of the catalyst, thereby affecting its activity and selectivity. Furthermore, control of input gas as well as operating power allows plasmas to achieve various regimes of ion density or frequency to promote either adsorption or desorption. Indeed, the new field of microplasmas specifically introduces the science of coupling the degrees of freedom associated with the surface physics to the thermodynamics of the plasma. Overall, there is the rich opportunity to overcome the limitations and constraints inherent in plasma processing and surface chemistry by combining them to achieve a new degree of flexibility and control of chemical reactions by systematically characterizing, understanding, and controlling their interactions.

Objective(s): This goal of the program is to explore and optimize fundamental processes pertinent to plasma-surface interactions for improved flexibility and control of electron energy, transient species, and transport (diffusion, deposition, etc.) properties. These advances will enable unique reaction conditions that permit novel and energy-efficient means of protecting or creating materials or utilizing energy for U.S. Air Force needs.

Research Concentration Area(s): This effort will be focused on enhancing our understanding of the coupling of surface chemistry with the energy and material transport physics of plasmas. Means to control catalytic chemistry using plasmas to affect surface reactions, chemical intermediates, electron energies, electronic excitation, and transport properties will be explored. New theoretical methods to model electron excitation of molecules and the effect of electron energy on reactivity will also be studied. Synergies between plasma and catalytic systems will be investigated, with the goal of producing the fundamental science to enable flexible systems that enhance a wide variety of DoD mission, including electrode erosion and surface modification, micro plasmas for counter-directed energy applications, novel fuel development, fuel reforming, enhancing combustion, remediation of hazardous materials, and nano-manufacturing.

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $1.6M/yr in the research supported by this initiative. It is highly encouraged that submitted proposals include strong experimental, theoretical and/or modeling components. International collaborations aimed at fostering joint research and the exchange of researchers may also be included. Successful proposals will demonstrate fundamental capability for innovative research combining both plasma and surface chemistry phenomena. Proposals submitted under this initiative could support teams of typically 2-4 investigators with awards ranging from $400k-600k/yr for 3 years, as well as efforts from individual investigators for smaller grants. Interested parties are encouraged to submit a White paper on their proposed effort no later than April 12, 2013. Full proposals are due by May 31, 2013.

Research Topic Chiefs:
Dr. Michael R. Berman, AFOSR/RTE
703-696-7781, DSN 426-1234

Dr. John W. Luginsland, AFOSR/RTB
703-588-1775, DSN 425-1775

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Socio-Digital Influence

Background: Contemporary (and future) conflicts will be characterized by the battle of information and attitudes, in conjunction with the traditional (kinetic) combat, where the key drivers of operational success may, in fact, rest in willingness of non-combatants to cooperate and support U.S. interests in the region. This reality suggests that the DoD place greater emphasis on the "influence levers" that exist within the cultural and digital domains. Events such as the Arab Spring demonstrated the impact that ubiquitous digital media can have on social movements. Yet, it should be noted, that the digital media did not cause the attitudes that served as catalysts for these events, but rather they served as a means to organize, shape, and monitor the psychological battle space. Technology offers a range of advantages when used for persuasive tactics, and these factors are likely variable when considering different cultural groups. Prior research suggests that rich sociological/psychological data collections are often needed to understand the gamut of factors that shape behavior among different cultural groups. By understanding both the role of cultural beliefs, behavior, and rituals and the role of technology such as social media, the DoD will become closer to understanding the levers of influence that exist throughout the globe.

Objective(s): This BRI is intended to initiate a basic research program that adds to the growing foundational understanding of the factors that influence the behavior of individuals and groups within the cultural and digital domains. It is hoped that this research will result in novel theories of influence within the socio-digital landscape and in empirical studies that identify mechanisms for influence within different groups.

Research Concentration Area(s): Suggested research areas include the following: (1) Empirical (laboratory and field) studies to examine the relevance of social influence tactics in different cultural groups; (2) Empirical studies to identify the antecedents of trust in different cultural groups; (3) Empirical studies to reveal the sources of influence that drive behavior in different cultural groups and in social media; and (4) Empirical and theoretical studies to discover new theories of influence (or test to evaluate whether new theories are needed) to explain influence within a global, digital domain.

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $2M/yr in the research supported by this initiative. Proposals submitted under this initiative should support projects ranging from $300-500K/yr for 3 years. The submission of a White paper to one of the Program Officers for this initiative is strongly encouraged prior to the submission of a full proposal. Full proposals are encouraged by 30 June 2012. Interdisciplinary and international collaborations are particularly welcome for this topic.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Joseph Lyons, AFOSR/RTC
703-696-6207, DSN 426-6207

Dr. Thomas Erstfeld, AFOSR/EOARD
+81-3-6385-3378

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Theory-based Engineering of Biomolecular Circuits in Living Cells

Background: The advances of the past three decades in recombinant DNA technology and measurement techniques have paved the way to the rising field of synthetic biology. Simple circuits composed of few genes in living cells, such as oscillators, toggles, and inverters, to control cell behavior have been built. Engineering biomolecular circuits in living cells has two main objectives. One is testing innovative mathematical principles underlying biological processes in a controlled fashion by constructing synthetic versions of the processes of interest. The other is engineering nano-scale self-reproducing living machines to perform a variety of tasks from bio-sensing, to turning waste into energy, to classifying environmental molecules. To reach these objectives, synthetic biology will have to design and implement robust circuits that are far larger and substantially more complex than those currently built. This ability, unfortunately, is still missing. There are two main types of obstacles: (1) system-level obstacles, which prevent an assembled circuit to behave as predicted and (2) fabrication/implementation obstacles. System-level obstacles are due to the fact that the discipline is currently not theory-based. These include impedance-like problems; competition for shared resources such as ATP, RNAP, ribosomes; impedance matching issues; poor robustness to variability in plasmid copy number, temperature, cell metabolic state; cell loading. Fabrication/implementation obstacles include interference with the proper functioning of the cell chassis, e.g., toxicity; plasmid instability; the availability of only a dozen of orthogonal promoters and transcription factors. Overcoming these obstacles requires the synergistic interplay of systems and signals, control theory, circuit theory, and dynamical systems disciplines with molecular biology, protein engineering, and microbiology disciplines. This topic provides the unique opportunity to implement this synergy toward the development of a fundamentally new theory-based framework to engineer robust biomolecular circuits.

Objective(s): The overall objective is to make synthetic biology a rational engineering discipline by creating a math and theory-based framework for modular design and fabrication.

Research Concentration Area(s): include, but are not limited to, (1) development of new mathematical tools, models, and computational techniques for the analysis and design of biomolecular circuits; (2) establishing a circuit theory for the modular design of biomolecular systems; (3) establishing general principles along with their biomolecular implementations for robustness to all sources of uncertainty cited above; (4) modular design of robust arrays of sensors that classify environmental molecules in a given set.

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $1.5m/yr in the research supported by this initiative. Proposals submitted under this initiative should support teams of typically 3-4 investigators with awards ranging from $500k-750k/yr for 3-5 years. Please note that this initiative emphasizes research that bridges the boundaries across multiple AFOSR portfolios. The submission of a White paper to one of the Program Officers for this initiative is strongly encouraged prior to the submission of a full proposal.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Fariba Fahroo, AFOSR/RTA
703-696-8429, DSN 426-8429

Dr. Hugh Delong, AFOSR/RTD
703-696-7722, DSN 426-7722

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Understanding the Interaction of Coronal Mass Ejections with the Solar-Terrestrial Environment

Background: Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) are massive regions of energetic plasma that are ejected explosively from the sun into interplanetary space. ICMEs contain imbedded magnetic fields that define how the energy carried in the ICME couples into geospace. If an ICME encounters the magnetic cavity surrounding the Earth, the dayside magnetosphere is compressed and the nightside is expanded, and the resulting disturbance energizes geospace. Effects range from increased particle energies in the radiation belts to increased energy and heating of the thermosphere. Impacts on the U.S. Air Force mission include damage to satellites, communication disruptions, uncertainties in satellite trajectories due to changes in atmospheric density, and disruption of power grids.
Substantial progress in recent years has provided several key pieces that have been, or could be, integrated into a practical forecast of ICME impacts:

  • Photosphere/corona/heliosphere observations and modeling to forecast the background solar wind through which an ICME propagates
  • Coupling solar wind drivers, including ICMEs, to geospace models using satellite measurements at L1
  • Coronal and interplanetary observations CME/ICME "launch" and transport
  • ICME propagation modeling using observed "launch" parameters and background solar wind specification and/or heliospheric imager observations.

Despite advances in the key areas above, our ability to specify the interior magnetic topology of an ICME - in particular its out-of-ecliptic component (Bz) - and hence its geoeffectiveness, is minimal (except for the external sheath fields). The overarching goal of this BRI is to develop the needed understanding and methods to fill this gap.

Objective(s): The objective of this BRI is to perform basic research in key areas that determine ICME geoeffectiveness with a focus on the internal magnetic topology of ICMEs. The underlying motivation of this research is to enable development of a practical forecast of ICME geoeffectiveness with a lead-time on the order of 1-2 days before its arrival at Earth.

Research Concentration Area(s): This BRI seeks innovative approaches that may include, but are not limited to: observable identification, measurement techniques, modeling, and improving physical understanding. While the immediate objective is basic research, it is expected that successful proposals will provide a clear vision of how the research, if successful, will substantially contribute to the ultimate goal of a geoeffectiveness forecast capability.

Areas of investigation may include:

  • Improvements in forecasting and/or modeling the magnetic field structure within ICMEs (especially Bz) based on observables at the sun and/or modeling of the sun.
  • Techniques for observing or inferring the magnetic field structure within an ICME as it propagates through the heliosphere and interacts with the solar wind.
  • Quantifying the stability and/or evolution of the internal magnetic topology of an ICME as it propagates through the heliosphere under different conditions.
  • Methods for coupling and/or assimilating internal ICME magnetic structure with heliospheric propagation models to provide a satisfactory specification of the magnetic time profile at Earth as the ICME passes.

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $1.5M/yr in the research supported by this initiative. Proposals submitted under this initiative should support small teams of typically 2-4 investigators with awards ranging from $300k-500k/yr for 3-5 years. Please note that this initiative emphasizes research that bridges the boundaries across multiple AFOSR portfolios. The submission of a White paper to one of the Program Officers for this initiative is strongly encouraged prior to the submission of a full proposal. Full proposals are encouraged by 30 June 2012.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Kent Miller, AFOSR/RTB
703-696-8573, DSN 426-8573

Dr. John Luginsland, AFOSR/RTB
703-588-1775, DSN 425-1775

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Understanding the Psychological/Behavioral Effects of Advanced Weaponry

Background: The U.S. Air Force is on the leading edge of technology as evidenced by sophisticated Uninhabited Aerial Systems (UAS) capable of strike and Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations, 5th generation fighter platforms armed with smart munitions aimed at precision effects, and cutting-edge Directed Energy (DE) weapons such as the Active Denial System, which incorporate non-lethal capabilities into the DoD toolkit. Yet, despite these technological advances, little is known about the effects of these technologies beyond their known bio-physical effects, suggesting that basic research is needed to examine their psychological and behavioral implications. Research is needed to better understand public reactions to such weapons. For example, how will individuals react to UAS being flown over their city or village? Are attacks from UAS perceived differently than attacks from manned platforms? How will the public react to novel non-lethal technologies such as counter-personnel directed energy weapons? Will this vary based on cultural beliefs? What are the societal barriers to introducing new weapon technologies in the battlefield?

Objective(s): The objectives of the current BRI research are to generate basic research in understanding the psychological/behavioral effects of current and future weaponry, and to foster a strong collaboration between academia and AFRL researchers to enable a nexus of research capabilities and findings related to understanding the effects of novel weapons.

Research Concentration Area(s): Suggested research areas include the following: (1) Empirical (laboratory and field) studies to describe and understand public perceptions of novel lethal and non-lethal weapons (with a specific emphasis on robotic platforms - Uninhabited Aerial Systems, and/or directed energy technology), 2) cross-cultural studies to investigate potential differences among different cultural groups in their perceptions of novel weapon technologies such as Directed Energy Weapons and UAS systems, 3) Modeling and simulation approaches which demonstrate the behavioral and psychological effects of lethal and or non-lethal weapons, and 4) basic research to better understand human sensemaking processes when interfacing with non-lethal weapons, for example how can military non-lethal technologies (or combination of technologies) be used to communicate basic instructions to naïve individuals (e.g., stop, turn around, warning).

Resources: Subject to the availability of funds, AFOSR anticipates investing up to $2M/yr in the research supported by this initiative. Proposals submitted under this initiative should support projects in the magnitude of $1M/yr for 3 years. It is anticipated that 2 awards will be made at this level. The submission of a White paper to one of the Program Officers for this initiative is required prior to the submission of a full proposal. Full proposals are encouraged by 30 May 2012. Interdisciplinary collaborations are particularly welcome for this topic.

Research Topic Chiefs:

Dr. Joseph Lyons, AFOSR/RTC
703-696-6207, DSN 426-6207

Dr. John Luginsland, AFOSR/RTB
703-696-1775, DSN 426-1775

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