AFOSR - Engineering and Complex Systems

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Engineering and Complex Systems (RTA1)

The Engineering and Complex Systems team within the Engineering and Information Science Branch leads the discovery and development of the fundamental and integrated science that advances future air and space flight. The broad goal of the team is to discover and exploit the critical fundamental science and knowledge that will shape the future of aerospace sciences. A key emphasis is the establishment of the foundations necessary to advance the integration or convergence of the scientific disciplines critical to maintaining technological superiority.

A wide range of fundamental research addressing electronics, fluid dynamics, materials, propulsion, and structural mechanics are brought together in an effort to increase performance and achieve unprecedented operational capability. The team carries out its ambitious mission through leadership of an international, highly diverse and multidisciplinary research community to discover, shape, and champion new scientific discoveries that will ensure novel innovations for the future U.S. Air Force.

The central research direction for this team focuses on meeting the basic research challenges related to future air and space flight by leading the discovery and development of fundamental science and engineering in the following research areas.

The Engineering and Complex Systems (AFOSR/RTA1) Program Officers and topics are:

Dynamic Materials and Interactions

Program Description:
The objective of the Dynamic Materials and Interactions portfolio is to develop fundamental scientific knowledge of the dynamic chemistry and physics of complex materials, particularly energetic materials. The portfolio focuses on energetic materials science and dynamics of heterogeneous materials.

Research supported by this portfolio seeks to discover, characterize, and leverage (1) fundamental chemistry, physics, and materials science associated with energetic materials; and (2) fundamental dynamics, shock physics, and materials science associated with complex, heterogeneous materials. The research will be accomplished through a balanced mixture of experimental, numerical, and theoretical efforts. This is required for revolutionary advancements in future Air Force weapons and propulsion capabilities including increased energy density and survivability in harsh environments. Research areas of interest emphasize the characterization, prediction, and control of critical phenomena which will provide the scientific foundation for game-changing advancements in munitions development and propulsion.

Basic Research Objectives: Research proposals are sought in all aspects of the chemistry and physics of energetic materials with particular emphasis placed on chemistry-microstructure relationships and the exploitation of fundamental dynamics in heterogeneous materials. Efforts that leverage recent breakthroughs in other scientific disciplines to foster rapid research advancements are also encouraged. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Mesoscale experiments, and associated models, to understand initiation in energetic materials;

  • Predictive processing-structure-property relationships in energetic materials, including reactive materials by design;

  • Detonation physics, particularly the steady state reacting front propagating in energetic materials;

  • High strain rate and shock response of polymers, composites, and geologic materials;

  • Ability to tailor dynamic stress waves through microstructure;

  • Shock loading and mechanical response of energetic crystals;

  • High energy density materials that overcome the CHNO limitations, including scale-up techniques required for gram-scale characterization of materials;

  • Bridging length scales in energetic and other heterogeneous materials.

You are highly encouraged to contact our Program Officer prior to developing a full proposal to briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art, how your research would advance it, and the approximate cost for a three (3) to five (5) year effort.


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GHz-THz Electronics and Materials

Program Description:
This program seeks scientific breakthroughs in materials and devices that can lead to game-changing capabilities in RF sensing and amplification, transmit/receive functions, wideband operation, reconfigurability, and novel functionality. The primary frequencies of interest range from GHz to THz.

Basic Research Objectives:
The focus of the portfolio is on understanding and exploiting fundamental interactions of electrons and quasiparticles with each other and their host materials in all regions of device operation. Technical challenges include understanding and controlling (1) interactions between particles/quasiparticles and the host lattices, boundaries, and defects, including thermal effects and changes over time that limit lifetime and performance; (2) carrier velocity; (3) dielectric properties and electric field distributions within the dielectrics; and (4) new methods of device operation that do not rely solely on conventional transistors or transport mechanisms such as drift, diffusion, and tunneling. Included are carrier transport and properties in regimes in which transport is not limited by scattering mechanisms. Efficiency, volume, and raw speed matter, but other figures of merit, such as speed or energy of computation, are also of interest. A subarea of interest is two-dimensional materials other than graphene as enablers for high-speed electronics, with focus on bandgap engineering and the unique properties of these materials and heterostructures as basic building blocks for new devices. Research into devices based on materials that perform multiple electronic, magnetic, and optical functions is of interest. It is expected that in order to fully understand the various new phenomena and device configurations, novel techniques to study and control nanoscale structures, defects, and operations must be developed.

You are highly encouraged to contact our Program Officer prior to developing a full proposal to briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art, how your research would advance it, and the approximate cost for a three (3) to five (5) year effort.


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Energy, Combustion and Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic

Program Description: This portfolio addresses energy needs for Air Force propulsion systems and their supporting sub-systems. The portfolio emphasizes its three foundational elements: Fundamental, Relevant, and Game-Changing: starting from establishing fundamental understanding and rate-controlling processes, focusing on Air Force interests and relevant conditions, encouraging multi-disciplinary collaborations/interactions and unconventional/innovative thinking, leading to game-changing concepts and predictive capabilities in Air Force relevant regimes.

You are strongly encouraged to submit a pre-proposal less than four pages long by email prior to developing a full proposal. Your pre-proposal should describe the innovative nature of the proposed effort (how to advance the state of art), clearly presenting the underlying approach logic and scientific foundation for your proposed research. Researchers with promising pre-proposals will be encouraged to submit full proposals. Full proposals are evaluated based on their strength in fundamental scientific merits, relevant to Air Force needs and game-changing potential using the section E.1. Criteria in the BAA.

Basic Research Objectives: Research topics in this portfolio include all aspects of energy conversion relevant to Air Force needs, combustion and otherwise, with the following emphases:

Turbulent Combustion:
Combustion is the primary energy conversion process in most Air Force propulsion systems such as jet engine, rocket, hypersonic and UAV systems. In those systems, combustion occurs at highly turbulent conditions. The key turbulent combustion attributes are critical in determining operability, performance, size and weight of such systems. However, these combustion attributes are also least understood areas in basic combustion research with rather large model/prediction uncertainties. In this sub-area, proposals will be considered with priority in the following topics:

Understanding key turbulent combustion attributes: including but not limited to: flame propagation and burning rate, flame structure, dynamics and stability/ instability, flammability, extinction and ignition. Understanding, quantifying and controlling turbulence conditions of the underlying flow are essential. Those conditions should be relevant to Air Force interests, with especial emphases on highly-turbulent, high-pressure, multiphase and trans-/super-critical conditions relevant to future Air Force propulsion systems.

Based on the first principle consideration and experimental observation/data (physical and numerical), establishing understanding and knowledge foundation and key model assumptions that are consistent to and representative of the underlying phenomena to be modeled. Based on these foundation and assumptions, developing physics-based predictive turbulence combustion models, with a particular emphasis on understanding and quantifying impacts of combustion and fluid processes at sub-grid scales on those at LES resolvable scales, leading to scientifically developed sub-grid turbulence combustion (LES) models and logically constructed model validation procedures;

Diagnostics for turbulent combustion: (1) game-changing signal generating processes and spectroscopic approaches for key physical and chemical properties in chemically reacting flows; (2) High-frequency, 3-d (volumetric or scanning 2-d) imaging for transient, turbulent flame and flow structures at required temporal and spatial scales/resolutions. In the both above (1) and (2), there are strong interests in diagnostics at high pressure multiphase and trans-/super-critical conditions relevant to future Air Force propulsion systems;

Numerical algorithms and methods for (1) Addressing specific needs arising from the turbulent reactive flow simulation due to its complex multi-physics and multi-scale nature and (2) Combined experimental-numerical approaches using simulations directly coupled with experimental data to reduce the simulation uncertainty and to obtain quantitative information which is otherwise not available through experimental measurements alone.

Combustion Chemistry:
It governs the underlying molecular system changes from high-energy states to lower ones through the combustion process. In this sub-area, research focuses on developing physics-based approaches for identifying rate-controlling reaction pathways and, based on these pathways, building combustion chemistry models of quantifiable and acceptable uncertainty with reasonable size for the turbulent, reactive flow simulations. Emphasized topics are:

Physics based (experimental, theoretical and computational) approaches to understand the combustion process of complex molecular systems such as real HC fuels, including jet fuels consisting of many molecular components, focusing on identifying, describing and quantifying key stochastic reaction pathways in those complex combustion chemical reaction systems and developing a new generation of accurate and computationally efficient combustion chemistry models based on these key reaction pathways. There are strong interests to understand, describe and establish physics-based modeling foundation for the chemical reaction process and underlying physical and chemical properties within at high-pressure, multiphase and trans-/super-critical conditions relevant to future Air Force propulsion systems;

Experimental techniques and diagnostics: (1) Ultra-fast (e.g. using ultra-short pulse laser) and other optical approaches for quantitatively observing histories of species, temperature and properties in key parts of the combustion processes such as those in the initial break-up of fuel molecules crucial to identifying key reaction pathways in the jet fuel combustion (2) Other necessary experiments for identifying reaction pathways and quantifying reaction model parameters. Again, diagnostics applicable to high-pressure conditions are of strong interest.

Quantifying the uncertainty of research approaches in combustion chemistry and resulted models, especially in the following aspects: (1) Uncertainties due to the empiricism and ad hoc features with the purpose of minimizing such empiricism and ad hoc features, (2) Understanding relationship between the model size and model uncertainty and (3) Uncertainties in combustion chemistry experiments;

Ab initio constrained approaches for optimization and reduction of combustion chemistry models.

Special Thermodynamics Topics:
Thermodynamics provides insights of energy conversion process and practical systems using energy. It also establishes the framework to analyze the efficiency and operating limit of such process and systems ranging from combustion in aviation engines to information processing in computers. The following topics are of particular interest:

  • Theoretical framework of thermodynamics for non-equilibrium physical and chemical processes, especially for ones being applicable to unconventional energy conversion processes that potentially offer higher than normal efficiency and other favorable attributes;
  • Non-thermal, reduced-thermal and hybrid energy conversion processes, possibly of non-equilibrium nature, for future propulsion and subsystems.
  • Innovative thermal-dynamic cycles, particularly for UAVs;
  • Thermodynamics foundation for information processing systems.
  • New Energy Conversion Concepts and Multi-Functions Energy Conversion Processes: Potential areas include but not limited to:
  • Combustion at extreme (short and long) time-scales such as detonation and flameless/ mild combustion;

Multi-functional energy conversion processes: (1) new innovative/unconventional energy conversion processes serving multiple system needs including but not limited to that of propulsion and supporting subsystems for resource supply, control, sensing, guidance and navigation as well as information processing (2) Approaches and algorithms for minimizing the energy consumption of those sub-systems;

Multi-functional fuels: (1) Endothermic fuels and systems and (2) Aviation fuels and energy systems with favorable source characteristics;

Innovative and unconventional approach to study the formation mechanism of large- or extra-large carbon based molecules/compounds/clusters at combustion, thermal or other interesting conditions, relevant to Air Force propulsion, energy and other interests.


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Unsteady Aerodynamics and Turbulent Flows

Program Description: The Unsteady Aerodynamics and Turbulent Flows portfolio supports basic research into the dynamics and control of aerodynamic shear flows including the interactions of these flows with rigid and flexible surfaces in motion. The portfolio is interested in aerodynamic flows arising in both internal and external configurations and extending over a wide range of Reynolds numbers.  The portfolio emphasizes the characterization, modeling, prediction, and control of flow instabilities and aerodynamics interactions.  A focus on the understanding of the fundamental flow physics is motivated by an interest in developing physically-based predictive models and innovative control concepts for these flows. 

Basic Research Objectives: Research in this portfolio is motivated, in part, by the unique fluid-structure interactions that are found in nature, in vortex and shear layer flows, on novel aerodynamic configurations, and by enduring questions about transitional and turbulent flows.  The portfolio maintains an interest in the dynamic interaction between unsteady fluid motion, nonlinear structural deformations, and aerodynamic control effectors for a wide range of flight regimes. 

The portfolio seeks to advance fundamental understanding of complex, time-dependent flow interactions by integrating theoretical, numerical, and experimental approaches: studies integrating these elements to improve understanding are strongly encouraged.  Flow control studies are expected to involve an approach based on a fundamental insight into the flow dynamics. In cases where that insight may not exist, studies examining fundamental flow physics with a path to enabling control of the flow may be of interest. Flow control efforts integrating modeling, control theory, and advanced sensor and/or actuator technology for application to a flow of interest are encouraged. 

Prior to developing a full proposal, prospective researchers are highly encouraged to contact the Program Officer to briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art in his/her area of interest, how the proposed research would advance it, and the approximate cost for a three (3) year effort.  Note that basic research of the variety typically funded by the portfolio may not yet have a clear transition path to an application, but nevertheless should be relevant to U.S. Air Force interests.


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High-Speed Aerodynamics

Program Description: The flow field around a high-speed vehicle strongly influences its size, weight, lift, drag and heating loads. Therefore, research in this area is critical to the U.S. Air Force’s interest in rapid global and regional response and space operations. This portfolio aims to lay the scientific foundation, through discovery, characterization, prediction and control of critical phenomena, for game-changing advancements in our understanding of high-speed, high temperature nonequilibrium flows around flying vehicles. External and internal transitional and turbulent wall-bounded flows are critical to the cadre of problems studied. Such understanding is a pre-requisite to making hypersonic flight routine.

Basic Research Objectives: Proposals are encouraged which leverage recent breakthroughs in other scientific disciplines and foster rapid research advancements in high-speed aerodynamics. It is encouraged that proposed efforts contain a balanced combination of experiments, computations and theoretical efforts. For any experiments proposed, explain how they capture the most sensitive variables for the problem being studied and how they can be used for validation of numerical models. For any numerical efforts explain which the hardest variables to accurately predict are and how the results will be validated with relevant measurements.

Innovative research is sought in all aspects of high Mach number (preferably M>5), high temperature, nonequilibrium flows with particular interest in (not in order of priority):

  • Shock/Boundary Layer, Shock-Shock, and Shock-Separation interactions and unsteadiness for both external surfaces, and at the inlet and isolators for scramjets

  • Turbulence - structure and growth, unsteady flow field characterization, effects of micro/macro particles in free stream, wall roughness, curvature, angle of attack, etc.

  • Transition - Initial value and Eigen value approaches for transition prediction, stability analysis for different modes and multimode transition

  • Diagnostics - to measure both the shock layer and the free stream disturbances

  • Flow-structure interactions at hypervelocity conditions

  • Development of physics-based models for air ro-vibrational-dissociation and ro-vibrational-translational processes that can: 1) be incorporated in CFD solvers without incurring orders of magnitude more time to solve a given problem and 2) be validated with experiments

  • Characterization of fundamental processes occurring between nonequilibrium flows and ablative surfaces

  • Characterization of naturally occurring disturbances in the atmosphere at high altitudes

  • Energy transfer mechanisms within high enthalpy flows

  • Identification and characterization of high L/D shapes

You are highly encouraged to contact our Program Officer prior to developing a full proposal to briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art, how your research would advance it, and the approximate cost for a three (3) to four (4) year effort.


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Low Density Materials

Program Description: Reducing the weight of aerospace platforms reduces costs and emissions while increasing payload capacity and performance. The AFOSR Low Density Materials portfolio supports transformative, basic research in materials design and processing to enable weight reductions with concurrent enhancements in performance and function. Such materials can transform the design of future U.S. Air Force aerospace and cyber systems for applications which include airframes, space vehicles, satellites, and load-bearing components and systems. Key scientific areas supported by the program include: materials discovery, processing and characterization; nanotechnology; integrated computational material science and engineering; composite and hybrid materials processing; and interface/phase science.

Among the routes to achieving game-changing improvements in low density materials currently emphasized within the program are 1) materials discovery and processing to increase performance properties of structural materials, e.g., matrix resins and reinforcing fibers and nanoparticulates; 2) multiscale modeling of material degradation mechanisms to improve material life prediction capability and minimize overdesign of load-bearing structures; 3) understanding the impact of nanoscale porosity on mechanical properties; and 4) the creation and interfacial understanding of hybrid structures that combine materials of different classes, scales, and properties to provide synergistic and tailorable performance.

Basic Research Objectives: Proposals are sought that advance our understanding of hierarchical or hybrid materials and our ability to design, model and fabricate multi-material, multi-scale, multi-functional material systems with a high degree of precision and efficiency. Fundamental research targeting materials that may engender multifunctionality such as high strength plus electrical and thermal transport properties and/or adaptivity to enable active aerospace structures is also a keen program interest. Material classes may be polymeric, ceramic, or metallic, possibly combining synthetic and biological species to engender lightweight structural integrity and multifuctionality.

You are highly encouraged to contact our Program Officer prior to developing a full proposal to briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art, how your research would advance it, and the approximate cost for a three (3) to five (5) year effort.


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Multi-Scale Structural Mechanics and Prognosis          

Program Description: This fundamental basic research program addresses the U.S. Air Force needs in the following application areas: 1) New and revolutionary flight structures, 2) Multi-scale modeling and prognosis and 3) Structural dynamics under non-stationary conditions and extreme environments. Other game-changing and revolutionary structural mechanics problems relevant to the U.S. Air Force are also of interest.

The structural mechanics program encourages fundamental basic research that will generate understanding, models, analytical tools, numerical codes, and predictive methodologies validated by carefully conducted experiments. The program seeks to establish the fundamental understanding required to design and manufacture new aerospace materials and structures and to predict their performance and integrity based on mechanics principles.

Basic Research Objectives: Fundamental basic research issues for new and revolutionary flight structures include: revolutionary structural concepts and unprecedented flight configurations; hybrid structures of dissimilar materials (metallic, composite, ceramic, etc.) with multi-material joints and/or interfaces under dynamic loads, and extreme environments; controlled-flexibility distributed-actuation smart structures. The predictive analysis and durability prognosis of hybrid-material structures that synergistically combine the best attributes of metals, composites, and ceramics, while avoiding their inherit shortcomings are of great interest.

Fundamental basic research issues of interest for multi-scale modeling and prognosis include: physics-based models that quantitatively predict the materials performance and durability of metallic and composite flight structures operating at various regimes; modeling and prediction of the structural flaws distribution and service-induced damage on each aircraft and at fleet level; structural analysis that accounts for variability due to materials, processing, fabrication, maintenance actions, changing mission profiles; novel and revolutionary on-board health monitoring and embedded non-destructive evaluation (NDE) concepts.

Fundamental basic research issues for structural dynamics include: control of dynamic response of extremely flexible nonlinear structures; control of unsteady energy flow in nonlinear structures during various flight conditions; nonlinear dynamics and vibration control of thin-wall structures of functionally graded hybrid materials with internal vascular networks under extreme loading conditions. 

You are highly encouraged to contact our Program Officer prior to developing a full proposal to briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art, how your research would advance it, and the approximate cost for a three (3) to five (5) year effort.


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Space Propulsion and Energy Storage

Program Description: Research activities are focused as multi-disciplinary, multi-physics, multi-scale approach to complex problems, and fall into four areas: Coupled Material and Plasma Processes far from Equilibrium, Nanoenergetics, High Pressure Combustion Dynamics, and Energy Storage.

Basic Research Objectives: Research in the first area is to significantly advance the state-of-the-art in our ability to understand the fundamental aspects of a coupled plasma/material system in non-equilibrium states, for a variety of potential applications. The typical conditions of interest are characterized by critical phenomena in small spatial and temporal scales which affect the behavior over a much wider range of scales. Detailed understanding and control of non-equilibrium and multiscale effects have the potential to overcome the limitations of traditional plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to improved system designs; preventing or leveraging dynamic features such as instabilities, coherent structures, and turbulence; and realizing chemical pathways, structural changes or electromagnetic processes for novel devices with unprecedented level of control. Research in second area is the ability to possess smart, functional nano-energetics for propulsion purposes only. There has been tremendous progress in the synthesis and fabrication of nanosized reactive materials. With significant advances in quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics over the last decade, as well as a broader understanding of the properties of nanomaterials, it may now be feasible to design a priori nanostructured reactive materials to perform a given function and then produce them in the laboratory according to the design, in order to avoid simply reacting in an uncontrolled fashion. Smart nanoenergetics may be activated by temperature, pressure, the presence of a particular chemical compound, or external electromagnetic stimuli, such as an electrical field or light. By smart, it may be desirable to initiate a reaction at a particular temperature, to release a particular compound at a particular temperature, to turn on or turn off a reaction, have tailored ignition properties, or to accelerate or slow a reaction with time or location. Research in the third area is to allow the Air Force to capitalize on the higher efficiencies, and increased performance options made possible by taking rocket and other propulsion systems to increasingly extreme pressures. As this necessarily pushes materials and structures to correspondingly extreme limits, it becomes essential to take into consideration the dynamics of combustion processes, because higher pressures lead to increasing coherent dynamic aerothermochemical events that convert thermal energy to thrust in a wider spectrum of time scales. Mathematical and experimental analysis also leads to a "big data" problem. It becomes necessary to combine and dynamically integrate multi-fidelity simulations and experimental probing or monitoring to systematically perform modeling, analytics, stochastic modeling, and dynamic data driven validation for chemical propulsion. Research in fourth area involves to address both as electrochemical and mechanical needs in a single multifunctional unit in which an energy storage unit simultaneously manages mechanical stress. Other concepts that can increase energy density will also be investigated.

All fundamental research ideas relating to space propulsion and energy storage are of interest to this program in addition to the examples given above, but researchers should also consult the programs in Plasma and Electro-Energetic Physics, Aerospace Materials for Extreme Environments, Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Dynamics, Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Microsystems, Computational Mathematics, and other programs as described in this Broad Area Announcement to find the best match for the research in question. Researchers are highly encouraged to consult: for the latest information.

You are highly encouraged to contact our Program Officer prior to developing a full proposal to briefly discuss the current state-of-the-art, how your research would advance it, and the approximate cost for a three (3) to five (5) year effort.


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Test Science for Test and Evaluation (T&E)              

Program Description: The Test Science for Test and Evaluation (T&E) program supports basic research which will build the foundation for future revolutionary capabilities that address the identified needs of the T&E community. As new technologies emerge, the ability to test new capabilities as they are assimilated into applied R&D is a critical part of the development process. The Test Science for T&E program sponsors basic research in areas that enable such testing and areas that allow the correct and comprehensive interpretation of test results. Fast and effective Test Science and Test Engineering lead to: improved ability to identify problems, understand causes, and recommend solutions; reduced product development time; improved quality; improved performance; better acquisition program decisions; increased acquisition program flexibility; meeting schedule deadlines; reduce test-and-fix cycle costs; reaching or exceeding performance goals; and superior products. The current The Test Science for T&E program encompasses five broadly-defined, overlapping thrust areas: Hypersonics, Aeroelasticity and Aerodynamics, Sensors and Electromagnetics, Information and Data Management and Fusion, and Enabling Materials. The Program is closely aligned with many other AFOSR program interests, but with special emphasis on aspects of basic research that lead to revolutionary advances in areas such as metrology and test science.

Basic Research Objectives: The Test Science for T&E program is closely engaged with technical experts at the Air Force Test Center (AFTC) organizations located at Edwards, Arnold, and Eglin Air Force Bases, who help advise the program on basic research objectives. Basic research in areas that advance the science of testing is broadly defined and spans mathematics as well as most disciplines in engineering and the physical sciences. Areas include:

  • Novel measurement techniques, materials, and instruments that enable accurate, rapid, and reliable test data collection of physical, chemical, mechanical, and flow parameters in extreme environments, such as those encountered during transonic flight, hypersonic flight, and the terminal portion of weapons engagement

  • Accurate, fast, robust, integratable models of the aforementioned that reduce requirements to test or help provide greater understanding of test results

  • Advanced algorithms and computational techniques that are applicable to new generations of computers, including massively parallel, quantum, and neuromorphic machines

  • Advanced algorithms and test techniques that allow rapid and accurate assessment of devices and software to cyber vulnerability

  • New processes and devices that increase bandwidth utilization and allow rapid, secure transfer of test data to control facilities during test, with special emphasis on telemetry

  • Advanced mathematical techniques that improve design of experiment or facilitate confident comparison of similar but disparate tests

  • Advanced models of test equipment and processes that improve test reliability and efficiency

  • New or advanced technologies that enable the test process

  • Basic research in other T&E technical areas that advances the science of test and contributes to the development of knowledge, skills, and abilities of the established or emerging AF T&E workforce.

You are highly encouraged to contact our Program Officer prior to developing full proposals to briefly discuss program alignment. You should be prepared to explain why your proposed effort should be considered basic research, how it is unique to Test Science, and demonstrate an awareness of the Air Force T&E process. Collaborative efforts with the Air Force Test Center and Air Force Research Laboratory are encouraged, but not required.



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